It is an institution with professional staff and medical equipment that provides healthcare to ill and injured people. It consists of a variety of departments, including the emergency department. Emergency care always remains the primary option, especially when someone suffers from a life-threatening illness or severe injuries. Severe injuries need to be taken care of immediately as they can lead to death sometimes.
Types of hospitals
Hospitals are categorized into different types depending on the treatment, services, ownership, size, facilities, etc.
- Private and government hospitals: There are two types of hospitals based upon ownership. Some hospitals are private, while others are functioning under the government. In many countries, hospitals are owned by governments. It can vary from country to country. However, both private and government hospitals are functioning in countries to provide health care facilities to individuals.
- General Hospitals: These hospitals provide treatment to all types of patients. They admit all surgical cases and concentrate on patients with acute illness who need intensive care. Their administration and staff are well organized. They have all the essential equipment and departments. They vary in size from area to area. Some may have additional departments like a laboratory, pharmacy, physiotherapy, etc., apart from primary care areas. These hospitals are also termed “community hospitals.”
- Teaching Hospitals: Some general hospitals are affiliated with medical colleges. They provide training to medical students. Nowadays, such hospitals are abundant. They are well-equipped to provide medical training to students from different health professions.
- Specialized Hospitals: The hospitals that treat a patient with a specific illness are called specialized hospitals—for example, tuberculosis and leprosy hospitals, and cancer hospitals, etc.
- Mental Health Hospitals: Mental hospitals/asylums are specially constructed to provide treatment to psychiatric patients.
Types of Health care
The fundamental role of hospitals is providing healthcare facilities to patients. Health care is divided into several categories listed and described below:
- Intensive care: ICUs are separate units designed to provide intensive care to critically ill patients. They are highly equipped and provide extended care. Patients with life-threatening conditions that are recoverable are kept under close monitoring here.
- Immediate care: This specialized unit provides direct care for a short period to help you recover. These units are set up at hospitals but can also be given at a care home or your own home. They include professionals like physiotherapists, speech therapists, occupational therapists, etc.
- Self-care: There are separate self-care units that consist of patients that are not bedridden. They can walk around, visit hospital café, and wear informal clothes. The ward has little staff and equipment as per need.
- Long-term care: Long-term care provides services to patients suffering from an illness or disability. The caregivers help them perform everyday activities they are no longer able to do. Mostly such care is provided by the family, but nursing homes and hospitals also offer them. Poor lifestyle, aging, or being single increases the risk of needing long-term care. These services are also provided to people who have suffered from an accident or undergone surgery to help them recover.
- Home care: Such programs are established to provide homecare facilities to patients that do not need full-time hospital services. They are best suited for patients that cant visit hospitals but can be treated at home. The nurses make sure the house provides a suitable environment for treatment. It has been proven effective since the home environment can help patients recover more quickly. Home care treatments are preferred by many families also.
Departments in a hospital
A hospital has many departments. They are listed below:
- Outpatient department (OPD): It is located at the entrance of a hospital. It provides services such that most of the remedial work is done, and there is no need to admit the patient. It also reduces expenses. Medical staff is available that diagnose the illness and provide treatment without overnight stay for patients.
- Inpatient Service (IP): it provides services like healthcare and food. It comprises wards, rooms, sanitary facilities, ICU, intermediate care wards, and isolation wards.
- Medical Department: It deals with several areas like gynecology, ENT, cardiology, surgery, neurology, psychiatry, medicine, etc.
- Nursing department: It comprises hospital nurses providing nursing care.
- Paramedical departments: Several areas are present working under this department, as the pathology department, including blood bank, serology lab, parasitology lab, hematology lab, biochemistry lab, and bacteriology lab. The histopathology department is also here.
- Rehabilitation department and physical medicine: It deals with functional disabilities of patients resulting from injuries or diseases. It comprises speech therapy, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy.
- OT: A hospital can have a couple of operation theatres. It’s where surgeries are performed.
- Pharmacy department: It is controlled by the hospital’s pharmacist. This department deals with buying, storing, and dispensing drugs.
- Radiology department: It provides x-ray and other radioactive therapies. Ultrasound, CT scan, MRI, etc., are also here.
- Dietary department: It takes care of the nutritional needs of patients as prescribes by their doctors. They also guide patients about their after discharging from the hospital.
- Administration: It deals with business management and admitting patients. They are responsible for all the billings and paperwork.
- Medical Record Department (MRD): This department has all the medical records of a patient. It is divided into three areas; administration, record library, and statistical area.
- Central Sterile Supply Department: It is located where all departments can have easy access to it. It deals with contaminated items, sterile articles, and sterilization. They receive, wash, clean, and dry the articles.
- Emergency room/ department: It provides quick service in treating emergency patients that need intensive and immediate care.
It treats critically ill or injured patients that are brought to hospitals in case of emergencies. The staff is well-trained in providing the most appropriate treatment in no time. It is busy most of the time. It is an essential department of a hospital. ER is one department among numerous departments within a hospital.
Types of ER
There are two types of ER:
- Hospital ER: It functions separately but is a part of the hospital.
- Freestanding ER: It is a private entity run by an organization or company. It is not attached to a hospital. It is located in rural and sub-urban areas mainly.
In terms of services, they both are similar and provide health care facilities in emergencies.
Organization and staff
They are organized in such a manner that they have all the necessary supplies and equipment. It is based on the pre-hospital arrangement. They examine emergency patients to know the severity of their condition. After that, they provide treatment. When the patient stabilizes, they re-examine them. The last step is discharging them or admitting them to the hospital. It is based upon their recovery.
It is divided into four zones, starting from less severe up to the high alert area. They are the green zone, yellow zone, orange zone, and red zone.
Emergency room staff has physicians, surgeons, medical students, technicians, nurses, physician assistants, and a special team for x-ray, MRI, CT scan, etc.
They deal with emergencies like cardiac arrest, heart attacks, broken bones, heavy bleeding, head injuries, brain injuries, automobile and other accidents, severe allergies, seizures, breathing problems, wounds, and worse cuts, severe sprains, bronchitis, etc. they deal with severe health issues that cant be cured in urgent care and walk-in clinics.